All I Want for Christmas is a New TLD

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All I Want for Christmas is a New TLD

As a company focused on identifying and protecting against DNS abuse, Farsight tracks new Top Level Domains (TLDs). As we head into 2018, it is a good time to reflect on the history of TLDs, their recent rapid growth and how brands are investing in these new digital assets.

The Rise of the TLD

For most of the history of the Internet, the list of TLDs in the DNS grew at a relatively leisurely rate.

The initial batch of TLDs (.com .net .org and friends) entered service in early 1985, thanks to RFC 920[1].

For the next 20 odd years, most of the TLD additions were country code TLDs (ccTLDs). [ccTLDs are listed in the table below in italics] In 2001, .biz, .info, and .name were launched. The same year IANA started offering “sponsored” TLDs such as .museum, .coop, and .aero. Sponsored TLDs are intended to support a specific community and usually limit access to the TLD to members of that community. Note that some of the pre-2001 TLDs with restrictive access policies are now considered sponsored TLDs ( e.g. .edu, .mil, .gov, .int). [Sponsored TLDs have an asterisk next to them in the table below.]

In 2007, TLDs using the Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) facility were introduced. IDNs leverage Unicode characters to allow users of languages not based on the ASCII character set to use the Internet in their native character set. The list of IDN TLDs, currently numbers slightly under 200, and hasn’t changed much since 2011. However, the use of IDNs for second-level domains, within an established TLD, is rather active.

Brand TLD Adoption

So how are brands utilizing these new gTLDs? Based on my research using Farsight’s Passive DNS data, many register their own gTLDs primarily for defensive purposes. In the gTLD sample set that I checked while writing this post, each “brand” TLD had proper name-server configuration as well as SOA records, however no material recent activity. Although there are some noteworthy examples of active new gTLDs, few appear to be used.

Yet a gTLD, even registered for defensive purposes, should not be forgotten – instead, they need to be protected. Each of these TLDs becomes a new namespace. If you are someone tasked with defending a brand, you now need to look at the suite of available TLDs and, for each one, work out a risk/cost assessment to determine which TLDs you need to invest in to enhance – or protect – your brand, or decide you need a TLD of your own. One approach to this challenge is the Trademark Clearinghouse (http://www.trademark-clearinghouse.com/) where you can register your trademarks, get advanced notice of upcoming gTLDs and alerts when domains are registered on those gTLDs matching your brands.

As new gTLDs enter the market, organizations should continue to monitor and decide whether to invest in these key digital assets. Yet keep in mind that the bad guys are tracking them as well so stay vigilant in protecting your organization from DNS abuse.

Addendum: A Chronological Introduction of New TLDs Over Time

The list below includes all of the TLD creation dates that I could find so may not be inclusive. The dates are grouped by year (or month-year) to save space. Note that my system didn’t have all the scripts for every Internationalized Domain Name (IDN), so I apologize for any errors in rendering.

Table 1. Chronological Introduction of New TLDs Over Time


	(Initial batch of TLDs created.)
Jan-85	 .ARPA, .COM, *.EDU, *.GOV, *.MIL, .NET, .ORG
	(First ccTLD)
Feb-85	 .US 
Jul-85	 .GB, .UK
Oct-85	 .IL
1986	 .AU, .NL, .JP, .FR, .SE, .KR, .DE, .FI
1987	 .NZ, .NO, .CA, .CH, .MY, .DK, .AR, .IS, .IT
1988	 .AT, .IE, .ES, .PT, .BE, .TH, .SG, .INT
1989	 .MX, .GR, .BR, .IN, .TW, .PR, .NI
1990	 .HK, .LK, .PL, .CR, .UY, .PH, .TR, .SU, .HU, .ZA, .CN, .EG
1991	 .EC, .BO, .VE, .NA, .TN, .DO, .AG, .BB, .BS, .BZ, .DM, .KN, .LC, .SR, .TT, .VC, .PY, .JM, .PG, .ZW, .PE, .CO
1992	 .AQ, .SI, .AL, .CU, .EE, .FJ, .GD, .LT, .PK, .GT, .MZ, .MO, .KW, .AE, .UA, .GE, .MT
1993	 .CZ, .LS, .LI, .RO, .HR, .ID, .BW, .SN, .BF, .SK, .BM, .HN, .KE, .LV, .FO, .SZ, .AZ, .LB, .AN, .MK, .ML, .NC, .MA
1994	 .DZ, .BH, .MD, .ZM, .IR, .RU, .GL, .VN, .GU, .SB, .BY, .SA, .PA, .BN, .CY, .GN, .AM, .GY, .KZ, .SV, .JO, .GA
1995	 .BG, .GH, .MC, .NP, .CL, .LU, .CI, .AI, .MN, .UG, .NG, .VU, .FM, .KI, .CM, .UZ, .KY, .KG, .TZ, .WS, .MG, .CK, .SM, .VI, .VA, .MU, .ET, .AO, .GI, .TO 
1996	 .AD, BJ, .AW, .KH, .SY, .NF, .TV, .PF, .OM, .CF, .MR, .NE, .LA, .DJ, .QA, .GF, .GG, .JE, .BA, .MH, .YE, .TG, .IM, .ER, .MV, .BI, .CV, .GP, .RW, .MP
1997	 .MW, .CG, .TC, .GW, .MM, .VG, .HT, .MS, .SD, .FK, .GM, .MQ, .RE, .LR, .LY, .CX, .IQ, .SC, .SL, .TP, .TM, .AS, .PW, .NU, .GQ, .PN, .BT, .HM, .GS, .CD, .PM, .BV, .SJ, .TF, .SO, .IO, .SH, .CC, .AF, .TD, .ST, .TK, .WF, .YT, .TJ, .AC
1998	 .NR, .KM
1999	 .BD
2000	 .PS
	(Start of Sponsored TLD’s)
2001	 .BIZ, .INFO, .NAME, *.MUSEUM, *.COOP, *.AERO
2002	 .PRO
2005	 *.TL, *.EU, *.TRAVEL, *.JOBS, *.MOBI, *.CAT
2006	 .AX
	(First batch of testing IDN’s created)
2007	 *.TEL, *.ASIA, .KP, .ME, .RS, .BL, .MF, .テスト, .ИСПЫТАНИЕ, .ΔΟΚΙΜΉ, .测试, .測試, .테스트, .טעסט, .إختبار, .آزمایشی, .परीक्षा
2008	 .UM
	(First production IDNs)
May-10	 .مصر, .السعودية, .امارات, .РФ
Jul-10	 .中国, .中國, .香港, .台湾, .台灣
Aug-10	 .ไทย, .تونس, .ලංකා, .இலங்கை, .الاردن, .فلسطين
Dec-10	 .BQ, .CW, .SX, .قطر
Feb-11	 .भारत, .ভারত, .ਭਾਰਤ, .ભારત, .بھارت, .భారత్, .இந்தியா, .الجزائر, .ایران, .한국, .გე, .پاکستان
Mar-11	 .УКР, .বাংলা
15-Apr-11	 *.XXX
31-Aug-11	 .SS
15-Sep-11	 .ҚАЗ
22-Oct-11	 .مليسيا
7-Aug-12	 *.POST
	(Start of new rush on generic TLDs)
Oct-13	 .CAMERA, .CLOTHING, .EQUIPMENT, .GURU, .HOLDINGS, .LIGHTING, .SINGLES, .VENTURES, .VOYAGE
Nov-13	 .BIKE, .CONSTRUCTION, .CONTRACTORS, .ESTATE, .GALLERY, .GRAPHICS, .LAND, .PLUMBING, .SEXY, .TATTOO, .DIAMONDS, .DIRECTORY, .ENTERPRISES, .KITCHEN, .MENU, .PHOTOGRAPHY, .TIPS, .TODAY, .UNO, .KIWI, .RUHR
Dec-13	 .ACADEMY, .BUZZ, .CAB, .CAMP, .CAREERS, .CENTER, .COMPANY, .COMPUTER, .DOMAINS, .LIMO, .BERLIN, .BUILDERS, .CEO, .CODES, .COFFEE, .EDUCATION, .EMAIL, .FARM, .FLORIST, .GLASS
Jan-14	 .AGENCY, .BUILD, .CHEAP, .CLUB, .DANCE, .DEMOCRAT, .GIFT, .GUITARS, .LINK, .LUXURY, .BARGAINS, .BOUTIQUE, .COOL, .EXPERT, .NAGOYA, .PHOTO, .RED, .RICH, .ROCKS, .SHIKSHA, .BLUE, .COMMUNITY, .DATING, .MANGO, .CATERING, .CLEANING, .CONSULTING, .CRUISES, .EVENTS, .EXPOSED, .FLIGHTS, .PARTNERS, .PROPERTIES, .RENTALS
Feb-14	 .CARDS, .CONDOS, .FOUNDATION, .FUTBOL, .MAISON, .NEUSTAR, .PARTS, .PRODUCTIONS, .REVIEWS, .VILLAS, .BAR, .BID, .CHRISTMAS, .FISH, .INDUSTRIES, .LONDON, .SUPPLIES, .SUPPLY, .VACATIONS, .VOTE, .ACTOR, .BEST, .GLOBO, .KOELN, .KRED, .OKINAWA, .PUB, .DNP, .GMO, .INK, .SOHU, .BUDAPEST, .COOKING, .COUNTRY, .FISHING, .HORSE, .MIAMI, .REN, .RODEO, .VODKA
Mar-14	 .DESI, .EUS, .FEEDBACK, .GOP, .JETZT, .REST, .TRADE, .WEBCAM, .AXA, .BAYERN, .BEER, .COLLEGE, .COLOGNE, .GAL, .LUXE, .MOE, .NYC, .QUEBEC, .ARCHI, .BLACK, .CAREER, .FOO, .MEET, .SAARLAND, .SOY, .VEGAS, .HAUS, .PARIS, .PRAXI, .YOKOHAMA
Apr-14	 .ASSOCIATES, .CAPITAL, .ENGINEERING, .FROGANS, .GRIPE, .LEASE, .MEDIA, .PICTURES, .REISEN, .SERVICES, .CLINIC, .FITNESS, .SCHULE, .AIRFORCE, .BLACKFRIDAY, .CARE, .CASH, .CITIC, .DENTAL, .DIGITAL, .DISCOUNT, .EXCHANGE, .FAIL, .ACCOUNTANTS, .AUCTION, .CREDIT, .CREDITCARD, .FINANCE, .INSURE, .NHK
May-14	 .AUTOS, .CLAIMS, .HOMES, .MOTORCYCLES, .OVH, .YACHTS, .AUDIO, .CHURCH, .GUIDE, .HIPHOP, .JUEGOS, .LIFE, .LOANS, .BIO, .REISE, .RIO, .VERSICHERUNG, .ATTORNEY, .CARAVAN, .DEGREE, .DENTIST, .DIRECT, .HAMBURG, .HIV, .HOST, .LAWYER, .MARKET, .ARMY, .BZH, .ENGINEER, .GIVES, .GLOBAL, .NAVY, .NRW, .ORGANIC, .REHAB, .REPUBLICAN
Jun-14	 .BMW, .BRUSSELS, .CAPETOWN, .DURBAN, .JOBURG, .LOTTO, .MINI, .PHYSIO, .PLACE, .SCOT, .BOO, .DAD, .DAY, .EAT, .GREEN, .HERE, .HOW, .ING, .MEME, .MOV, .ACTIVE, .CANCERRESEARCH, .CUISINELLA, .SCHMIDT, .SPIEGEL, .LGBT, .OTSUKA, .SCB, .SUZUKI
Jul-14	 .CITY, .DEALS, .GENT, .LTDA, .MELBOURNE, .TATAR, .WILLIAMHILL, .ABOGADO, .DATSUN, .INFINITI, .KRD, .LACAIXA, .NGO, .NISSAN, .NRA, .ONG, .SCHOLARSHIPS, .SCA, .HEALTHCARE, .REALTOR, .TOP, .BNPPARIBAS, .CYMRU, .EVERBANK, .GIFTS, .OOO, .RESTAURANT, .SARL, .WALES
Aug-14	 .GMX, .UOL, .CERN, .CLICK, .DIET, .HELP, .HOSTING, .PROPERTY, .YOGA, .BUSINESS, .CASA, .IINET, .NETWORK, .WORK, .FRL, .IMMO, .PIZZA, .WME, .CHANNEL, .ESQ, .FLY, .GBIZ, .GMAIL, .PROD, .RSVP, .YOUTUBE, .ZIP, .CRS, .EUROVISION, .PHARMACY
Sep-14	 .CAL, .CHROME, .FIRMDALE, .GLE, .GOOGLE, .NEXUS, .POKER, .PROF, .EMERCK, .WORLD, .ALSACE, .DVAG, .POHL, .TUI, .FORSALE, .ALLFINANZ, .FLSMIDTH, .IBM, .TAIPEI
Oct-14	 .BAND, .MADRID, .SKY, .RIP, .TOSHIBA, .BLOOMBERG, .DELIVERY, .ENERGY, .LDS, .MORMON, .FASHION, .GARDEN, .PARTY, .REIT, .SCIENCE, .ANDROID, .BOND, .DOOSAN, .HERMES, .SAMSUNG, .SYDNEY
Nov-14	 .AQUARELLE, .IRISH, .LATROBE, .SEW, .CRICKET, .ABBOTT, .AMSTERDAM, .CARTIER, .CBN, .COACH, .DEV, .DOCS, .IWC, .LEGAL, .MEMORIAL, .ADULT, .BANK, .PORN, .TRUST
Dec-14	 .GDN, .LAT, .LIDL, .OSAKA, .SCHWARZ, .SHRIRAM, .TIRES, .SALE, .VIDEO, .DESIGN, .FIT, .FLOWERS, .GGEE, .JPRS, .KDDI, .MARRIOTT, .ONE, .TEMASEK, .ZUERICH
Jan-15	 .BARCLAYCARD, .BARCLAYS, .CHLOE, .DCLK, .GOOG, .HANGOUT, .JCB, .KYOTO, .LOTTE, .NTT, .DABUR, .HSBC, .IFM, .JAVA, .MEO, .ORACLE, .SAPO, .SAXO, .BINGO, .CANON, .CHAT, .LECLERC, .STYLE, .TENNIS
Feb-15	 .ACCOUNTANT, .ADS, .APARTMENTS, .DATE, .DOWNLOAD, .ERNI, .FAITH, .FANS, .LOAN, .NICO, .BOATS, .CASINO, .FOOTBALL, .GOLDPOINT, .GOO, .MAIF, .SCHOOL, .YODOBASHI, .AFL, .COURSES, .EPSON, .GUGE, .PANERAI, .STUDY, .SUCKS, .XIN, .DOHA, .FILM, .MAN, .MMA, .MTPC, .FAN
Mar-15	 .BROKER, .CFD, .FOREX, .GUCCI, .HONDA, .ICU, .KOMATSU, .MARKETS, .ONLINE, .REDSTONE, .AUTO, .BAUHAUS, .BBC, .CAFE, .CARS, .EXPRESS, .GOLD, .GOLF, .JLC, .MOVIE, .CYOU, .LIAISON, .LUPIN, .SAP, .SKYPE, .TICKETS, .LOVE, .CBA, .COMMBANK, .NETBANK, .RACING
Apr-15	 .IPIRANGA, .NADEX, .NEC, .RENT, .SENER, .WEIR, .XEROX, .ABB, .AIG, .BROTHER, .ICBC, .JEWELRY, .SEX, .SHOW, .TEAM, .BRIDGESTONE, .CFA, .CISCO, .DOG, .EARTH, .SEEK, .SWISS, .TORAY, .BBVA, .CORSICA, .HITACHI, .LOL, .NOKIA, .OMEGA, .SAFETY, .SWATCH, .ACCENTURE, .AZURE, .BING, .DELL, .HOCKEY, .HOTMAIL, .MICROSOFT, .RUN, .SCOR, .TAXI
May-15	 .BHARTI, .COUPONS, .MEN, .SNCF, .SOCCER, .STARHUB, .BENTLEY, .BIBLE, .FYI, .HOTELES, .JLL, .MBA, .PAMPEREDCHEF, .SANDVIK, .SANDVIKCOROMANT, .SKI, .BOM, .BRADESCO, .FINAL, .HOMEDEPOT, .IST, .ISTANBUL, .ITAU
Jun-15	 .BARCELONA, .BCN, .CROWN, .DRIVE, .LASALLE, .OFFICE, .PLAY, .SAKURA, .VISTA, .VISTAPRINT, .AEG, .BNL, .FORUM, .GENTING, .GIVING, .REALTY, .STATOIL, .UBS, .AIRTEL, .BOOTS, .CHANEL, .CLOUD, .LANCASTER, .LAW, .MOVISTAR, .ORANGE, .TELEFONICA, .APP, .DELTA, .FAGE, .LIVE, .STUDIO
Jul-15	 .APPLE, .CEB, .GAME, .MUTUAL, .GEA, .ICE, .LIFEINSURANCE, .SRL, .ACO, .BET, .LEXUS, .LIXIL, .PET, .SANOFI, .TATAMOTORS, .TOYOTA, .VIN, .WINE, .XPERIA, .CIPRIANI, .GROUP, .VIP, .MTR
Aug-15	 .AMICA, .CSC, .FAMILY, .LTD, .QUEST, .AAA, .BEATS, .MOM, .PROTECTION, .STADA, .THEATRE, .ARAMCO, .MLS, .STC, .STCGROUP, .VIVA, .CAR
Sep-15	 .LINDE, .OBI, .SECURITY, .TAB, .BMS, .FERRERO, .KINDER, .MOI, .ROCHER, .VIRGIN, .YAMAXUN, .ZARA, .HEALTH, .HYUNDAI, .KIA, .STOCKHOLM, .SEVEN, .ARTE, .CITYEATS, .CLUBMED, .MUTUELLE, .NORTON, .PING, .PLAYSTATION, .SBS, .SYMANTEC, .VANA
Oct-15	 .LIFESTYLE, .NIKON, .RWE, .BROADWAY, .COMSEC, .CREDITUNION, .GALLUP, .JAGUAR, .LANDROVER, .VIKING, .AARP, .ALLY, .BAREFOOT, .GALLO, .FAIRWINDS, .FIRESTONE, .GRAINGER, .KFH, .NIKE, .PNC
Nov-15	 .BOEHRINGER, .BOSTIK, .INSURANCE, .SHELL, .STATEFARM, .VERISIGN, .AUDI, .AUTHOR, .BOOK, .BOT, .BUGATTI, .CALL, .CIRCLE, .FAST, .GOT, .JOT, .ADAC, .ANALYTICS, .BUY, .FOX, .ISELECT, .JMP, .REDUMBRELLA, .SAS, .DEALER, .NOWRUZ, .PARS, .SHARP, .SHIA, .TCI, .TRAVELERS, .TRAVELERSINSURANCE, .TRV, .VIG
Dec-15	 .MOBILY, .ALSTOM, .KPN, .NORTHWESTERNMUTUAL, .BESTBUY, .CLINIQUE, .CONTACT, .FORD, .HELSINKI, .LAMER, .LINCOLN, .LIVING, .ORIGINS, .PID, .BAIDU, .DUBAI, .DUNLOP, .FRESENIUS, .GOODYEAR, .KERRYHOTELS, .KERRYLOGISTICS, .KERRYPROPERTIES, .KUOKGROUP, .REXROTH, .BOSCH, .PROMO, .COMPARE, .DELOITTE, .MAKEUP, .MONSTER, .RMIT, .SELECT, .SKIN, .SOFTBANK, .TUBE, .VOLKSWAGEN
Jan-16	 .ALIBABA, .ALIPAY, .DDS, .EDEKA, .LANXESS, .NISSAY, .TAOBAO, .TMALL, .WOODSIDE, .BABY, .CHASE, .JNJ, .JPMORGAN, .KPMG, .PWC, .MATTEL, .UNICOM, .WEATHERCHANNEL, .COUPON, .FLICKR, .FRONTIER, .FTR, .NATURA, .SONG, .SPOT, .TUNES, .VOLVO, .YAHOO
Feb-16	 .ALLSTATE, .GOODHANDS, .HDFCBANK, .TOTAL, .TVS, .WOLTERSKLUWER, .BCG, .STORE, .TELECITY, .PASSAGENS, .PROGRESSIVE, .TEVA, .VUELOS, .ABBVIE, .ABUDHABI, .AVIANCA, .EXTRASPACE, .LOCUS, .STREAM, .SINA, .WEIBO
Mar-16	 .ABLE, .CHINTAI, .FLIR, .GMBH, .HTC, .JCP, .SHAW, .TDK, .ANQUAN, .AWS, .METLIFE, .SHOUJI, .TALK, .XIHUAN, .YOU, .YUN, .LEGO, .SBI, .STATEBANK, .TIAA, .AGAKHAN, .AKDN, .LEFRAK
Apr-16	 .BEAUTY, .HOMEGOODS, .HOMESENSE, .IMAMAT, .ISMAILI, .MARSHALLS, .TJMAXX, .TJX, .TKMAXX, .WINNERS, .ERICSSON, .GUARDIAN, .UPS, .WARMAN, .HKT, .NOWTV, .PCCW, .RICHARDLI, .AETNA, .DOT, .FARMERS, .INTEL, .LIPSY, .NEXT, .NEXTDIRECT, .OLAYAN, .OLAYANGROUP, .SMART, .NATIONWIDE, .ONYOURSIDE, .REALESTATE
May-16	 .COOKINGCHANNEL, .DUPONT, .FOODNETWORK, .FRONTDOOR, .HGTV, .MLB, .NETFLIX, .SES, .SHOP, .TRAVELCHANNEL, .BBT, .BLOG, .HISAMITSU, .AUDIBLE, .DEAL, .DTV, .FIRE, .IMDB, .ITV, .KINDLE, .LILLY, .LOCKER, .NOW, .GAMES, .AIRBUS, .DHL, .EPOST, .PIONEER, .VIVO, .ZIPPO
Jun-16	 .BLANCO, .HONEYWELL, .IKANO, .KOSHER, .NFL, .SHOPPING, .ANZ, .ART, .CAM, .FEDEX, .IEEE, .INTUIT, .MINT, .STAPLES, .SWIFTCOVER, .ORIENTEXPRESS, .CBRE, .COMCAST, .LUNDBECK, .PFIZER, .POLITIE, .XFINITY, .ESURANCE, .GODADDY, .MACYS, .MIT, .MITSUBISHI, .MSD, .PANASONIC, .SHANGRILA, .BLOCKBUSTER, .CITADEL, .FUJITSU, .JUNIPER, .LATINO, .LPL, .LPLFINANCIAL, .VISA
Jul-16	 .BOOKING, .CHRYSLER, .DODGE, .FUJIXEROX, .JEEP, .LANCOME, .MCD, .MCDONALDS, .MOPAR, .SRT, .HBO, .ABARTH, .AFAMILYCOMPANY, .AMERICANFAMILY, .AMFAM, .ATHLETA, .BANANAREPUBLIC, .DISCOVER, .DOCTOR, .DUCK, .DUNS, .ABC, .ALFAROMEO, .AMEX, .ASDA, .BANAMEX, .CBS, .CITI, .DIY, .GEORGE, .HDFC, .AMERICANEXPRESS, .HYATT, .BOFA, .CALVINKLEIN, .FIDELITY
Aug-16	 .AIGO, .CAPITALONE, .DISH, .HUGHES, .NAB, .SLING, .UBANK, .AUSPOST, .JIO, .RELIANCE, .RIL, .ECO, .FIDO, .ROGERS, .VANGUARD
Sep-16	 .OBSERVER, .HAIR, .WOW, .DVR, .RADIO, .BASEBALL, .MOTO
Oct-16	 .BASKETBALL, .CRUISE, .AOL, .BOX, .CASE, .CASEIH, .FREE, .IVECO, .NEWHOLLAND
Nov-16	 .FOOD, .CATHOLIC, .BOSTON, .FUN
Dec-16	 .HOSPITAL, .DATA, .MOBILE, .PHONE
Feb-17	 .AFRICA

TLD data table source: Wolfram Alpha LLC. 2017. Wolfram|Alpha. https://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Top+Level+Domain+creation+date (access Dec 18, 2017). Formatting modified and annotations added.

Trademarks and copyright belong to their respective owners.

[1] https://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc920.txt

Ben April is a Senior Director for Research for Farsight Security, Inc..


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